The term borderline was first used by Adolf Stern in 1938. He used the expression to describe a group of patients who were not able to benefit from classical psychoanalysis and who did not appear to fit into the standard neurotic or psychotic classifications. These patients, although initially appearing to be good psychotherapeutic cases, would develop a fairly specific pattern of acting out which manifested into severe transference problems that became difficult to treat within the scope of psychoanalysis. At that time psychopathology was viewed as a continuum which ran from normal to neurotic to psychotic. The patient who did not fit clearly into these criteria was considered to be suffering from a borderline group of neuroses.